舉例：In order to obtain better confirmation on the presence of?H4SiMo12O40,?Raman spectroscopic investigation was also conducted,?because Raman spectroscopy is a sensitive technique to study supported metal oxide and it is complementary to?IR?investigation.?The Raman spectra of?the MoVI@mSiO2?and its derived?H4SiMo12O40@mSiO2?hollow spheres?are displayed in?Figure 8, with reference to those of?pure mesoporous silica and commercial α-MoO3.?For?pure mesoporous silica,?the peak at?984 cm?1?is attributed to stretching vibration of?Si?OH?bond and the peak at?821 cm?1?to?Si?O?Si?linkages, while the two peaks at?648 and 487 cm?1?are assigned to the presence of?siloxane rings.?Indeed, apart from the?488 cm?1?peak, there are four new peaks observed for the?MoVI@mSiO2-20?sample in?Figure 8a,which are characteristic of?heptamolybdate species (Mo7O246?).?The peaks at?952 and 878 cm?1?are due to symmetric and asymmetric stretching of the?terminal Mo=O?bond, while the peaks at?374 and 223 cm?1?are attributable to bending vibration of?terminal Mo=O?and deformation of?Mo?O?Mo?respectively.?It is noted that no peaks corresponding to the?MoO3phase were observed, which indicates?that the present thermal infusion method is effective to prepare highly dispersed molybdenum oxide within the mesoporous silica spheres.?Afterthe hydration of MoVI@mSiO2?with water,?more Raman peaks appeared due to restructuring of?surface heptamolybdate species.?The peaks at?998?999,977?981, 910?913, 789, 645, and 247 cm?1?can be unambiguously assigned to?silicomolybdic acid, though it is still difficult to differentiate between the α and β forms of this solid acid (Figure 8b,c).?In addition to those of?silicomolybdic acid,?the peaks at?818, 367 and 214?217, and 155 cm?1?are also observed; these peaks could be attributed to the presence of?the α-MoO3?phase. Quite clearly, water could also facilitate the crystallization of surface heptamolybdate species to small α-MoO3?clusters, which probably took place during the drying process (100 °C).?The above observation is also consistent with?our FT-IR?findings, revealing that silicomolybdic acid is responsible for the high activity observed for the Friedel? Crafts alkylation.
參考文獻：Zeng H. et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134,16235?16246.
為什么要做這個表征：In order to obtain better confirmationon the presence of?物種類型, Raman spectroscopic investigation was also conducted.
得到哪些信息，說明了什么問題：For?物種類型,?the peaks at?峰位置?are attributable to/are attributed to/can be assigned to the symmetric and asymmetric stretching of?鍵型?bond/the bending vibration of?鍵型?and deformation of?鍵型,?respectively.
The peaks at?峰位置?are also observed, which could be attributed to/could be assigned to the presence of /are characteristic of /correspondswell with?物種類型.
It is noted that no peaks corresponding to the?物種類型?were observed, which indicates
從這些信息還可以進一步得到什么：The above observation is also consistent with?其他表征手段findings, revealing that…
Evidently, this spectrum has all the characteristics of?an amorphous tungsten oxide (a-WO3),namely all bands are broad and their relative band intensities are characteristic of?a-WO3.The band at?around 960 cm-1?again?can be assigned to?the terminal W=O?stretching mode, possibly on the surface of the cluster and in microvoid structures in the film.?The broad band centered at?760 cm-1?most probably can be deconvoluted into several Raman peaks, including the strongest peaks?at?715 and 807 cm-1?of?a monoclinic WO3.
參考文獻：Augustynski J.,?J. Am. Chem. Soc.,?2001,?123,?10639-10649.
UV Raman spectra of these samples indicate that?the mixed phases of?anatase and rutile coexist?in the surface region.?Namely, when the TiO2?sample is calcined at 700– 750?oC,?the phase junctions between?anatase and rutile?are derived on the surface of?the rutile TiO2,?as characterized by?UV Raman spectroscopy?combined with?XRD and visible Raman spectroscopy.
參考文獻:?Li C., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 1766–1769.
Raman spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful, local structural probe for?MnO2.δ-phase MnO2?has strong Raman-active?(Mn-O)?stretching transitions at?646 and 575 cm-1.?A somewhat weaker transition at?510 cm-1?is also prominent but less intense in?most δ-phase MnO2?samples.?All three of these characteristic Raman peaks are observed for?MnO2?films prepared using the multipulse procedure (Figure 5b),?whereas?a mp-MnO2?nanowire prepared by multipulse deposition on quartz?exhibits two of these at?656 and 568 cm-1.Peaks at lower energies, including the?510 cm-1?mode, cannot be observed?because this spectral region is obscured by transitions of the quartz surface.?Collectively the data of?Figure 5suggests that the?mp-MnO2?nanowires?have some?birnessite?character?despite being X-ray amorphous.
參考文獻：Penner Reginald M. et al., ACS nano, 2011, 5,8275–8287.
The agglomeration of graphene sheets is also confirmed with Raman spectroscopy as shown in?Fig. 4.?The D band of our sample is relatively intense compared to the G band, which is in agreement with?previous results for graphene samples obtained from exfoliated GO. It was shown that alongthe graphite→GOreduced→GO path the Raman spectra undergo significant changes. Specifically,?the?G band?broadened significantly and displayed a shift to higher frequencies (blue-shift),and the?D band?grew in intensity.?The Raman spectrum of our sample contains?a G band at 1584 cm-1, a D band at 1352 cm-1?and the second-order features, at 2690 and 2910 cm-1.The?G band?position?(1584cm-1)?of?our reduced graphene oxide powder sample?is in good agreement with the literature, but the position is?3 cm-1?higher than that of?the initial graphite (1581 cm-1).This shift was also observed when going from?a graphite crystal to a single graphene sheet,?in which the G band?shifts to a value?3– 6 cm-1?higher than for?bulk graphite.?The?D?band around?1350 cm-1?arises from?disorder, and is very weakin a single graphene sheet?but increases in intensity with?the number of layers.?Thus, the shift of the?G?band and relatively intense?D?band indicate?small stacks of quite disordered graphene sheets.
參考文獻：?Srinivas G., Carbon, 2010, 4 8, 630-635.